Constitution at a Glance

Sources Features Borrowed

Government of India Act of 1935 : Federal Scheme, Office of governor, Judiciary, Public Service Commissions,

Emergency provisions and administrative details.

British Constitution Parliamentary : Government, Rule of Law, Legislative procedure, Single citizenship, Cabinet system

Prerogative Writs, Parliamentary Privileges and Bicameralism

US Constitution : Fundamental rights, independence of judiciary, judicial review, impeachment of

the president, removal of Supreme Court and high court judges and post of vice-


Irish Constitution : Directive Principles of State Policy, nomination of members to Rajya Sabha and

method of election of president.

Canadian Constitution : Federation with a strong Centre, vesting of residuary powers in the Centre,

appointment of state governors by the Centre, and advisory jurisdiction of the

Supreme Court.

Australian Constitution :

Minimum Support Price (MSP)

The MSP is the price at which the Government ‘promises’ to buy from farmers if market prices fall below it. It has been announced for 23 commodities.

Under the State APMC Acts, the first sale of agriculture commodities can occur at Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC) Mandis only. 

Central agencies like, Food Corporation of India (FCI), Cotton Corporation of India (CCI), Jute Corporation of India (JCI), Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC), National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Ltd. (NAFED), Federation of India Ltd. (NCCF), and Small Farmers Agro Consortium (SFAC) will purchase the entire quantity offered by the farmers at minimum support price.

Farmer may not get prices at the District Mandi due to following reasons :

Bumper production

Supply market prices


Price-fixing by the Mandi-merchants

To protect the farmers, Government of India announces Minimum support prices (MSP) before each crop sowing season.

MSP covers the following corps.

14 Kharif Crops : Grown In Summer / Monsoon Season Paddy, Jowar, Bajra, Maize, Ragi, Arhar, Moong, Urad, Groundnut-In-Shell, Soyabean, Sunflower, Sesamum, Nigerseed and Cotton.

6 Rabi Crops − Grown in winter season Wheat, Barley, Gram, Masur (Lentil), Rapeseed/Mustard, Safflower

3 Commercial/Cash Crops : Jute, Copra (coconut) and Sugarcane.

For Sugarcane, calculation is different: It requires the sugar mill companies to pay the minimum Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) fixed by union Government and state Government.

MSP Benefits?

·      Farmer always has the option to sell produce t Government if he can’t get remunerative prices from private merchants.

·      It prevents distress-sale of produce at lower prices to private merchants.

·      Government announces MSP before the sowing season for 23 crops including cereals, pulses, oilseeds &certain cash crops.

·      This advanced information helps the farmer to make an informed decision about which crop to sow for maximum economic benefit within the limitations of his farm size, climate, and irrigation facilities.

·      Minimum support price sends a price signal to market that merchants don’t offer higher than MSP farmer may not sell them his crop.

·      Minimum support price serves as an anchor or benchmark for agriculture commodity market. While MSP doesn’t guarantee that market prices will always be higher than Minimum support price, at least it ensures the market prices will not be drastically lower than Minimum support price.

Limitation of MSP :

·      FCI and NAFED procurement is usually confined to big towns and district centers.

·      Farmers in remote and tribal area are unable to bring their produce to the procurement agencies due to high cost of transportation. 1997: Govt. launched Decentralized Procurement where in State Govt. themselves procure wheat and rice from farmers, & Union will bear the costs. But not much success in increasing the penetration yet.

·      Procurement is usually confined to rice and wheat (cereal grains). Not for pulses, oilseeds, and other crops. So, the aforementioned benefits of MSP remain ‘only on paper, they are not implemented in reality.

·      MSP not even announced for vegetables and fruits.

Cryptocurrency in India


Cryptocurrency: is a digital/virtual currency created & stored using blockchain Technology. Blockchain A decentralized database that maintains a continuously growing list of records/transactions. entries can’t be deleted new entries will be visible to all. Mainly used for running cryptocurrency network. But it can also store any type of data.

Cryptocurrency is discovered in 2009, Satoshi Nakomoto launched a cryptocurrency ‘Bitcoin’ total 21 million coins, wherein 1 Bitcoin (BTC) = 108 Satoshi is smallest unit of bitcoin examples of bitcoin Ethereum, Litecoin, Digicoin, Laxmicoin, Ripple.

cryptocurrencies is not banned in India the only country to ban cryptocurrencies are Nepal, Bangladesh, Morocco, Algeria, Equator, Bolivia et all already banned crypto coins.

The budget says Crypto-currencies are not legal tenders. We’ll eliminate use of these Crypto-currencies in financing illegitimate activities or as part of the payment systems. Dinesh Sharma Committee to Finance Ministry & Subhash Chandra Gar committee to Finance Ministry suggested Government to ban it.

How to obtain Cryptocurrency

  • Mining of the blockchains using powerful computers
  • Selling goods and services to a miner/owner of cryptocurrency
  • Exchanging legal tender to buy cryptocurrency

Positive aspect of cryptocurrency

  • Cryptocurrencies have been described as a transformative technology that could revolutionize a number of industries.
  • No Fraud and Scam in Cryptocurrency.
  • No Chance of Personal Information Leakage.
  • Immediate and Secure Ownership Transfer.
  • Illegal Activities can be Perform.
  • Banking system is using this technology.

Negative aspect of cryptocurrency

  • Difficult to trace by law enforcement agencies. Misuse in Narcotics, Illegal trade, Terror finance.
  • can’t get justice under Consumer Protection Act.
  • Selling goods and services in exchange of Bitcoins, Government deprived of GST, Custom duty, Income tax.
  • Loss Risk is High

Facts of cryptocurrency

Over 7000 cryptocurrencies are listed in Investopedia.

Over $15 bn held in cryptocurrencies by Indians.

Over ~50 cr traded daily in rupees. Bitcoin first traded at $0.08 in July 2010 — that is 12.5 coins to a dollar. It’s trading at $61,000 coin today.

Ethereum, Ripple, Doge Coin also have extraordinary returns. A bitcoin can be split into 100 million Satoshis, which allows for it to be used to buy small, relatively cheap items. Ethereum, etc. can be similarly split into smaller units.

IPCC report forecasts a future of severe weather

The Indian Ocean is warming at a higher rate than other oceans, India will witness increased heatwaves and flooding, which will be the irreversible effects of climate change. Global warming trends are likely to lead to an increase in annual mean precipitation over India, with more severe rain expected over southern India in the coming decades.

IPCC’s Sixth Assessment Report, “Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis”, said the warming of the ocean would lead to a rise in sea levels, leading to frequent and severe coastal flooding in low-level areas. India’s coastline 7,517 km would face significant threats from the rising seas.

Across the port cities of Chennai, Kochi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Surat and Visakhapatnam 28.6 million people would be exposed to coastal flooding if sea levels rise by 50 cm.

Monsoon extremes are likely to increase over India and South Asia, while the frequency of short intense rainy days are expected to rise.

Models also indicate a lengthening of the monsoon over India by the end of the 21st century, with the South Asian monsoon precipitation projected to increase.

Stating that human activities are causing climate change, the report said the planet was irrevocably headed towards warming by 1.5 degrees Celsius over preindustrial times in the next two decades.

Keeping global warming below 2 degrees Celsius of preindustrial levels by the turn of century and endeavouring to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius was at the heart of the 2015 Paris Agreement.

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Telangana temple gets World Heritage tag

Ramappa (Rudreswara) Temple is also known as the Ramalingeswara (Lord Siva) temple.

13th-century Ramappa temple in Palampet, Telangana, was declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site on Sunday. At the ongoing online meeting of the World Heritage Committee (WHC) in Fuzhou, China, the decision was reached after a consensus, with Norway opposing the inscription while Russia led an effort for the immediate inscription of the temple.

The temple, known for its exquisite craftsmanship and delicate relief work, is a savvy blend of technical know-how and materials of its time. The foundation is built with the “sandbox technique”, the flooring is granite and the pillars are basalt. The lower part of the temple is red sandstone while the white gopuram is built with light bricks that reportedly float on water.

India mounted a diplomatic offensive to ensure the World Heritage Site status for the Ramappa temple by reaching out to other countries whose representatives were to vote on the proposal.


International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) works for the conservation and protection of cultural heritage places. It is the only global non-government organisation of this kind, which is dedicated to promoting the application of theory, methodology, and scientific techniques to the conservation of the architectural and archaeological heritage.

ICOMOS is a network of experts that benefits from the interdisciplinary exchange of its members, among which are architects, historians, archaeologists, art historians, geographers, anthropologists, engineers, and town planners.

The members of ICOMOS contribute to improving the preservation of heritage, the standards, and the techniques for each type of cultural heritage property: buildings, historic cities, cultural landscapes, and archaeological sites

ICOMOS facts and figures (December 2020):

10489 Individual Members in 151 countries
248 Institutional Members
104 National Committees
28 International Scientific Committees


for more info –

Supreme Court Judge Justice U.U. Lalit

Legal aid and the availability of free legal aid services.

Supreme Court Judge Justice U.U. Lalit has said that every police station in the country must have display boards informing about the right to legal aid and the availability of free legal aid services.


National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) has been constituted under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987. Purpose To provide free legal services to weaker sections of society The aim is to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reasons of economic or other disabilities.

Nyaya Deep’ is the official newsletter of NALSA. It organizes Lok Adalats for amicable settlement of disputes.


As per section 3(2) of Legal Service Authorities Act, the Chief Justice of India shall be the Patron-in-Chief Second senior-most judge of the Supreme Court of India is the Executive-Chairman.

State legal services authorities

In every State, the State Legal Services Authority has been constituted to give effect to the policies and directions of the NALSA and to give free legal services to the people and conduct Lok Adalats in the State. The State Legal Services Authority is headed by Hon’ble the Chief Justice of the respective High Court who is the Patron-in-Chief of the

State Legal Services Authority.

District Legal Services Authority.

In every District, District Legal Services Authority has been constituted

to implement Legal Services Programmes in the District. The District Legal Services Authority is situated in the District Courts Complex in every District and chaired by the District Judge of the respective district.

PM Modi launches digital payment solution eRUPI.

Cashless and contactless instrument for digital payment.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched eRUPI, a person and purpose-specific cashless digital payment solution, via videoconference on Monday. eRUPI is a cashless and contactless instrument for digital payment. it is a QR code or SMS string-based voucher, which is delivered to the mobile of the beneficiaries.

In addition to the government, if any organization wanted to help someone for his or her treatment, education, or for any other work, then they would be able to give an eRUPI voucher instead of cash, he said. “This will ensure that the money is being used for the purpose for which any help or any benefit is being provided.”

The digital token-style system is seen as a way to spot potential gaps in the existing welfare payments infrastructure and fix them.

What are some challenges in implementing e-RUPI?

According to data intelligence firm Data Report, the number of mobile connections in India as of January 2020 is equivalent to 78% of the total population. And during the period between January 2019 and January 2020, mobile connections dropped by 1.4%. Enabling roughly 22% of the population to get a mobile phone to access welfare services via e-RUPI will be a problem to be solved.

National Green Tribunal

National Green Tribunal The National Green Tribunal has been established on 18.10.2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010 for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to the environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property and for matters connected therewith.

National Green Tribunal. (File Photo: IANS)

National Green Tribunal resolves various civil cases under the following seven laws that are related to the environment: Water Act (Prevention and Control of Pollution), 1974 Water Cess Act (Prevention and Control of Pollution), 1977Forest Act (Conservation), 1980Air Act (Prevention and Control of Pollution), 1981Environment (Protection) Act, 1986Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991Biological Diversity Act, 2002